Member of the Paris Society of Political Economy.
Translation by Roderick T. Long
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The social problem stated. That society is governed by natural, absolute, and immutable laws. That property is the foundation of the natural organisation of society. Definition of property. List of current assaults on the principle of property.Second Evening
Assaults on interior property. Literary and artistic property. Intellectual piracy. Property in inventions.Third Evening
Assaults on exterior property, continued. The law of expropriation for the sake of public utility. Mining legislation. Public domain, property of the State, of departments, and of communes. Forests. Roads. Canals. Rivers. Mineral waters.Fourth Evening
The right of bequest. Legislation regulating inheritance. The right of inheritance. Its moral results. Its material results. Comparison of French agriculture with British agriculture. Entail and its utility. Natural organisation of farm management under a system of free property.Fifth Evening
The right to lend. Legislation regulating loans with interest. Definition of capital. Motives impelling man to form capital. Credit. Interest. The elements of which it is composed. Labour. Privation. Risk. How these elements can be reduced. That they cannot be so by laws. Disastrous results of legislation restricting the interest rate.Sixth Evening
The right of exchange. Exchange of labour. Laws regarding unions. Articles 414 and 415 of the Penal Code. Union of Parisian carpenters in 1843. Demonstration of the law which makes the price of things gravitate toward the sum of their costs of production. Its application to labour. That the worker can sometimes dictate to the employer. Example of the English Antilles. Natural organisation of the sale of labour.Seventh Evening
The right of exchange, continued. International exchange. The protectionist system. Its aim. Aphorisms of M. de Bourrienne. Origin of the protectionist system. The mercantile system. Arguments in favour of protectionism. Depletion of specie. Independence from abroad. Increase in domestic production. That the protectionist system has decreased overall production. That it has made production precarious and distribution iniquitous.Eighth Evening
Assaults on interior property. Industries monopolised or subsidised by the State. Manufacture of currency. The nature and use of currency. Why a countrys specie cannot be depleted. Transportation routes. Managed expensively and badly by the State. Mail delivery. Postmasters. That the intervention of government in protectionism is always necessarily harmful. Subsidies and privileges of theatres. Public libraries. Subsidy of worship. Monopoly of education. Its fatal results.Ninth Evening
Assaults on interior property, continued. The right of association. Legislation regulating commercial companies in France. The limited company and its advantages. The monopoly of banks. The function of banks. Result of government intervention in the business of banks. The discount rate. Legal bankruptcies. Other privileged or regulated industries. Bakers. Butchers. Printers. Notaries. Stockbrokers. Prostitution. Morticians. Cemeteries. The bar. Medicine. Professors. Article 3 of the Law of 7-9 July 1833.Tenth Evening
Legal charity and its influence on population. Malthus Law. Defense of Malthus. Population in Ireland. Means of putting an end to the poverty of Ireland. Why legal charity gives rise to an artificial increase in population. Its moral influence on the working classes. That legal charity discourages private charity. QUALITY of population. Means of improving population. Crossing of races. Marriages. Sympathetic unions. Ill-matched unions. Their influence on the race. In which situation, under which system the population would most easily maintain itself at the level of its means of existence.Eleventh Evening
Government and its function. Monopoly governments and communist governments. Freedom of government. Divine right. That divine right is identical with the right to work. Vices of monopoly government. War is the inevitable consequence of this system. Sovereignty of the people. How sovereignty is lost. How it is recovered. The liberal solution. The communist solution. Communist governments. Their vices. Centralisation and decentralisation. The administration of justice. Its former organisation. Its present organisation. The inadequacy of the jury system. How the administration of security and that of justice might be rendered free. Advantages of free governments. What is meant by nationality.Twelfth and Final Evening
See also David M. Harts translation of this chapter.
Rent. Its nature and origin. Summary and conclusion.
PARIS, GUILLAUMIN AND Co., BOOKSELLERS,
Editors of the Collection of Principal Economists, the Journal des
Ιconomistes, the Dictionary of Commerce and Commodities, etc.
14 RUE RICHELIEU
GUSTAVE GRATIOT, Printer, 11 Rue de la Monnaie.
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